Main Article Content
The ultrasonic range finder sensors is a general-purpose sensor to measure the distance contactless. This sensor categorized as low-cost sensor that widely used in various application. This sensor has a significant deviation that lead to significant error in the measurement result. The error that produced by this sensor tends to increase proportionally to the measured distance. The implementation of the particular algorithm is required to reduce the error value. The model-based calibration is a solution to increase the accuracy. The model-based solutions are no longer feasible if the states of the model have changed. The longer of the usage of the sensor lead to sensor fatigue. Sensor fatigue is one of the causes of model state changes. As long as the drift still within the tolerance limit, the performance of the sensor still can be restored by using calibration method. The model-based calibration calibrates the sensor by using the model. The update of the model must be made whenever the changing of the model state occurred. Since the manual model making process is not an easy task, time and cost required, then the Newton polynomial-based AMG (Automatic Model Generation) have been implemented to this research. The AMG algorithm generates the new sensor model automatically based on the most updated states. This automatic model generation is implemented in the calibration process of the ultrasonic sensor. The implementation of polynomial-based AMG algorithm for sensor calibration have been succeeded to improve the accuracy of the calibrated sensor by 96.4% and reduce the MSE level from 25.6 to 0.914.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work
 V. A. Zhmud, N. O. Kondratiev, K. A. Kuznetsov, V. G. Trubin, and L. V. Dimitrov, "Application of ultrasonic sensor for measuring distances in robotics," J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1015, no. 3, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1015/3/032189.
 T. Julian and K. Triyana, "Pengujian Akuisisi Data sENSOR Ultrasonik HC-SR04 dengan Mikrokontroler Atmega 8535 ( Testing Data Acquisition of Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04 using Atmega 8535 Microcontroller )," vol. 8535, pp. 35–40.
 G. I. Gandha and D. Nurcipto, "The Performance Improvement of the Low-Cost Ultrasonic Range Finder (HC-SR04) Using Newton’s Polynomial Interpolation Algorithm," J. Infotel, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 108–113, 2019, doi: 10.20895/infotel.v11i4.456.
 J. Feng, S. Megerian, and M. Potkonjak, "Model-based calibration for sensor networks," Proc. IEEE Sensors, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 737–742, 2003, doi: 10.1109/icsens.2003.1279039.
 N. Matsumoto, Y. Suclo, B. K. Siiiha, and M. Niwa, "Long-term stability and performance characteristics of crystal quartz gauge at high pressures and temperatures," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 347–354, 2000, doi: 10.1109/58.827419.
 T. Horiuchi, F. Wolk, and P. Macoun, "Long-term stability of a new conductivity-temperature sensor tested on the VENUS cabled observatory," Ocean. IEEE Sydney, Ocean. 2010, 2010, doi: 10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603512.
 R. G. Pavelko, A. A. Vasiliev, X. Vilanova, and V. G. Sevastyanov, "Long-term stability of SnO2 gas sensors: The role of impurities," Proc. IEEE Sensors, pp. 815–818, 2008, doi: 10.1109/ICSENS.2008.4716566.
 Y. Wen, Y. Mao, Q. Luo, and X. Wang, "Smart pH Sensor Using Untreated Platinum Sheet Based on Chronopotentiometry and Long-Term Stability Analysis," IEEE Sens. J., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 3841–3845, 2019, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2897073.
 L. Spassov, V. Gadjanova, R. Velcheva, and B. Dulmet, "Short- and long-term stability of resonant quartz temperature sensors," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1626–1631, 2008, doi: 10.1109/TUFFC.2008.838.
 L. Zhang, "The calibration technique for pipelined ADC," Proc. - 2008 Int. Conf. Multimed. Inf. Technol. MMIT 2008, pp. 809–812, 2008, doi: 10.1109/MMIT.2008.168.
 Y. Luo, R. Wang, and L. Yao, "A Curve-fitting Calibration Method applied for Ultrasonic Flow-meter," TELKOMNIKA Indones. J. Electr. Eng., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 5669–5674, 2013, doi: 10.11591/telkomnika.v11i10.3392.
 M. Mozek, D. Vrtacnik, D. Resnik, U. Aljancic, M. Cvar, and S. Amon, "Calibration and error correction algorithms for smart pressure sensors," 11th IEEE Mediterr. Electrotech. Conf. (IEEE Cat. No.02CH37379), pp. 240–243, 2002, doi: 10.1109/MELECON.2002.1014566.
 E. Köppe, D. Augustin, A. Liers, and J. Schiller, "Self-calibration-method for an inertial navigation system with three 3D sensors," 1st IEEE Int. Symp. Inert. Sensors Syst. ISISS 2014 - Proc., pp. 3–6, 2014, doi: 10.1109/ISISS.2014.6782522.
 Y. Choi, Y. Bin Kim, and I. S. Jung, "A 100MS/s 10-bit Split-SAR ADC with Capacitor Mismatch Compensation Using Built-In Calibration," Proc. - 2016 IEEE 25th North Atl. Test Work. NATW 2016, pp. 1–5, 2016, doi: 10.1109/NATW.2016.9.
 F. M. Schüffny, S. Höppner, A. Oefelein, and C. Mayr, "A multi-bit PFD architecture for ADPLLs with built-in jitter self-calibration," Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 2019-May, pp. 6–10, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ISCAS.2019.8702118.
 I. Sarkas, M. G. Girma, J. Hasch, T. Zwick, and S. P. Voinigescu, "A fundamental frequency 143-152 GHz radar transceiver with built-in calibration and self-test," Tech. Dig. - IEEE Compd. Semicond. Integr. Circuit Symp. CSIC, pp. 5–8, 2012, doi: 10.1109/CSICS.2012.6340072.
 I. S. Jung and Y. Bin Kim, "A 12-bit 32MS/s SAR ADC using built-in self calibration technique to minimize capacitor mismatch," Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Defect Fault Toler. VLSI Syst., pp. 276–280, 2014, doi: 10.1109/DFT.2014.6962078.
 H. Gao, Z. Wang, and L. Zhang, "Gyro online correctionmethod based on Kalman filter and polynomial fitting," Proc. - 5th Int. Conf. Instrum. Meas. Comput. Commun. Control. IMCCC 2015, pp. 1144–1149, 2016, doi: 10.1109/IMCCC.2015.246.
 L. Zhang, R. L. Wang, and K. K. Liu, "Study on errors correction of infrared methane sensor based on Support Vector Machines," 2009 2nd Int. Conf. Intell. Comput. Technol. Autom. ICICTA 2009, vol. 2, pp. 471–475, 2009, doi: 10.1109/ICICTA.2009.349.
 H. Desheng, H. Yunfeng, and C. Hong, "Model-based calibration for torque control system of gasoline engines," Proc. - 2014 Int. Conf. Mechatronics Control. ICMC 2014, no. Icmc, pp. 1774–1779, 2015, doi: 10.1109/ICMC.2014.7231866.
 A. M. L. Peixinho and J. W. Santrock, "MODEL-BASED POLARIMETRIC SAR CALIBRATION METHOD USING FOREST AND SURFACE SCATTERING TARGETS," vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 10–14, 2011, doi: 10.16194/j.cnki.31-1059/g4.2011.07.016.
 S. Cai, B. Liu, F. Zhang, and T. Cui, "Research on model-based calibration method of electronic control unit pump diesel engine," IEEE Transp. Electrif. Conf. Expo, ITEC Asia-Pacific 2014 - Conf. Proc., pp. 1–4, 2014, doi: 10.1109/ITEC-AP.2014.6940942.
 S. Ogata and M. Kayama, "SML4C: Fully automatic classification of state machine models for model inspection in education," Proc. - 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd Int. Conf. Model Driven Eng. Lang. Syst. Companion, Model. 2019, pp. 720–729, 2019, doi: 10.1109/MODELS-C.2019.00109.
 Y. Liu and W. J. Ye, "Time consuming numerical model calibration using Genetic Algorithm (GA), 1-Nearest Neighbor (1NN) classifier and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)," Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. - Proc., vol. 7 VOLS, pp. 1208–1211, 2005, doi: 10.1109/iembs.2005.1616641.
 H. Sansury, "The Annual Conference on Management and Information Technology ( ACMIT ) 2016 Ultrasonic Sonar Object and Range Detection Measurement Display using HC-SR04 Sensor on Arduino ATMEGA 2560," no. February 2014, pp. 49–55, 2016.
 M. Andayani, W. Indrasari, and B. H. Iswanto, "Kalibrasi Sensor Ultrasonik Hc-Sr04 Sebagai Sensor Pendeteksi Jarak Pada Prototipe Sistem Peringatan Dini Bencana Banjir," vol. V, pp. SNF2016-43-SNF2016-46, 2016, doi: 10.21009/0305020109.
 K. Bhatia and A. Pathak, "Factors affecting accuracy of distance measurement system based on ultrasonic sensor in air," Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng., vol. 8, no. 2 Special Issue 11, pp. 2143–2144, 2019, doi: 10.35940/ijrte.B1222.0982S1119.
 W. Xie and P. Bai, "A pressure sensor calibration model based on support vector machine," Proc. 2012 24th Chinese Control Decis. Conf. CCDC 2012, pp. 3239–3242, 2012, doi: 10.1109/CCDC.2012.6244512.
 Z. Mahmoudi, M. D. Johansen, J. S. Christiansen, and O. Hejlesen, "Comparison between one-point calibration and two-point calibration approaches in a continuous glucose monitoring algorithm," J. Diabetes Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 709–719, 2014, doi: 10.1177/1932296814531356.
 G. Jiang and C. Zhao, "Camera calibration based on polynomial fitting," 2010 Int. Conf. Comput. Intell. Softw. Eng. CiSE 2010, pp. 0–3, 2010, doi: 10.1109/CISE.2010.5677182.
 X. Yang, X. Meng, T. Jiang, and A. Husnain, "An error correction method based on polynomial fitting to improve the accuracy of the em indoor positioning system," Proc. - 2016 6th Int. Conf. Instrum. Meas. Comput. Commun. Control. IMCCC 2016, no. 3, pp. 932–935, 2016, doi: 10.1109/IMCCC.2016.150.
 Z. Tang, P. Yan, and Luojun, "A novel ROV depth control based on LSM fitting predictor and fuzzy compensation," ICACTE 2010 - 2010 3rd Int. Conf. Adv. Comput. Theory Eng. Proc., vol. 2, pp. 612–614, 2010, doi: 10.1109/ICACTE.2010.5579496.
 H. Shan, L. Yu, H. Wang, Y. Li, and B. Cao, "Calibration of Indoor EM Location System based on Polynomial Fitting," Proc. 2019 IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. Electron. Inf. Commun. Technol. ICEICT 2019, pp. 873–876, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ICEICT.2019.8846317.
 L. Zhang, Y. Qin, and J. Zhang, "Study of polynomial curve fitting algorithm for outlier elimination," 2011 Int. Conf. Comput. Sci. Serv. Syst. CSSS 2011 - Proc., pp. 760–762, 2011, doi: 10.1109/CSSS.2011.5974936.
 R. Srivastava and P. Srivastava, "Comparison of Lagrange’s and Newton’s interpolating polynomials," J. Exp. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2012, [Online]. Available: http://jexpsciences.com/index.php/jexp/article/viewArticle/12469.
 T. H. Feng, L. Wang, W. Zheng, S. Kanajan, and S. A. Seshia, "Automatic model generation for black box real-time systems," Proc. -Design, Autom. Test Eur. DATE, pp. 930–935, 2007, doi: 10.1109/DATE.2007.364412.
 L. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Wan, H. Kabir, and Q. J. Zhang, "Parallel automatic model generation technique for microwave modeling," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., pp. 103–106, 2007, doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2007.380265.
 F. De Dinechin, M. Joldes, and B. Pasca, "Automatic generation of polynomial-based hardware architectures for function evaluation," Proc. Int. Conf. Appl. Syst. Archit. Process., pp. 216–222, 2010, doi: 10.1109/ASAP.2010.5540952.
 E. Holst and P. Thyregod, "A statistical test for the mean squared error," J. Stat. Comput. Simul., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 321–347, 1999, doi: 10.1080/00949659908811960.