Trajectory Tracking Control System Design For Autonomous Two-Wheeled Robot

Main Article Content

Nur Uddin


A trajectory tracking control system design of an autonomous two-wheeled robot (TWR) is presented. The control system objective is to steer the TWR move on a desired trajectory in planar space. The TWR has two kinds of movement: moving forward/backward and turning to the right/left, where the movements are represented by a non-linear kinematics equation. Simplifying the trajectory tracking control system design, the non-linear kinematics equation is approximated by a linear kinematics equation. Linear quadratics regulator (LQR) method is applied to design the trajectory tracking control system. The designed control system is evaluated through computer simulation. Simulation results show that the designed control system is able to make the TWR track a desired trajectory that located 1.4 meter away from the TWR initial position within 3 seconds.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
UDDIN, Nur. Trajectory Tracking Control System Design For Autonomous Two-Wheeled Robot. JURNAL INFOTEL, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 3, p. 90-97, aug. 2018. ISSN 2460-0997. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 sep. 2018. doi:


[1] R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern control systems. Pearson, 2011.
[2] Y. Kanayama, Y. Kimura, F. Miyazaki, and T. Noguchi, “A stable tracking control method for an autonomous mobile robot,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1990, pp. 384–389.
[3] Z.P. Jiang and H. Nijmeijer, “Tracking control of mobile robots: A case study in backstepping,” Automatica, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1393–1399, 1997.
[4] R. Dhaouadi and A. A. Hatab, “Dynamic modelling of differential-drive mobile robots using lagrange and newton-euler methodologies: A unified framework,” Advances in Robotics & Automation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2013.
[5] Z.P. Jiang, “Global tracking control of underactuated ships by lyapunov’s direct method,” Automatica, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 301–309, 2002.
[6] F. Mazenc, K. Pettersen, and H. Nijmeijer, “Global uniform asymptotic stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1759–1762, 2002.
[7] J. Xu, M. Wang, and L. Qiao, “Dynamical sliding mode control for the trajectory tracking of underactuated unmanned underwater vehicles,” Ocean engineering, vol. 105, pp. 54–63, 2015.
[8] B.K. Sahu and B. Subudhi, “Adaptive tracking control of an autonomous underwater vehicle,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 299–307, 2014.
[9] Y.S. Ha et al., “Trajectory tracking control for navigation of the inverse pendulum type self-contained mobile robot,” Robotics and autonomous systems, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 65–80, 1996.
[10] K. Pathak, J. Franch, and S.K. Agrawal, “Velocity and position control of a wheeled inverted pendulum by partial feedback linearization,” IEEE Transactions on robotics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 505–513, 2005.
[11] R. Cui, J. Guo, and Z. Mao, “Adaptive backstepping control of wheeled inverted pendulums models,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 501–511, 2015.
[12] M. Yue, S. Wang, and J.Z. Sun, “Simultaneous balancing and trajectory tracking control for two-wheeled inverted pendulum vehicles: a composite control approach,” Neurocomputing, vol. 191, pp. 44–54, 2016.
[13] Z.Q. Guo, J.X. Xu, and T.H. Lee, “Design and implementation of a new sliding mode controller on an underactuated wheeled inverted pendulum,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 351, no. 4, pp. 2261–2282, 2014.
[14] N. Esmaeili, A. Alfi, and H. Khosravi, “Balancing and trajectory tracking of two-wheeled mobile robot using backstepping sliding mode control: Design and experiments,” Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 601–613, Sep 2017.
[15] C. Yang, Z. Li, R. Cui, and B. Xu, “Neural network-based motion control of an underactuated wheeled inverted pendulum model,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2004–2016, 2014.
[16] M. Yue, C. An, and J.Z. Sun, “An efficient model predictive control for trajectory tracking of wheeled inverted pendulum vehicles with various physical constraints,” International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 265–274, 2018.
[17] T. Nomura, Y. Kitsuka, H. Suemitsu, and T. Matsuo, “Adaptive backstepping control for a two-wheeled autonomous robot,” in ICCAS-SICE, 2009, pp. 4687–4692.
[18] R.P.M. Chan, K.A. Stol, and C.R. Halkyard, “Review of modelling and control of two-wheeled robots,” Annual Reviews in Control, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 89–103, 2013.
[19] N. Uddin, “Lyapunov-based control system design of two-wheeled robot,” Proceeding of International Conference on Computer, Control, Informatics and its Applications (IC3INA), 2017, pp. 121–125.
[20] D.S. Naidu, Optimal control systems. CRC press, 2002.
[21] N. Uddin, T.A. Nugroho, W.A. Pramudito, “Stabi-lizing two-wheeled robot using linear quadratic regulator and states estimation,” in Proc. of the 2nd International conferences on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering (ICITISEE), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Oct. 2017